Technical Papers

2016 Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC) Paper
J. Steele, M. Newton and C. Campion, “How hot is it? A survey of temperatures inside medium-voltage electrical enclosure across North America,” 2016 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC), Montreal, QC, Canada, 2016, pp. 567-570.
doi: 10.1109/EIC.2016.7548666
June 19 – 22, 2016

  • The effects that the ambient conditions, seasonal load fluctuation and installation factors have on the temperatures measured inside enclosures
  • Determining he normal operating temperature range inside electrical enclosures across North America.
  • The generalized model provides an acceptable predictor for determining enclosure temperature.
  • Further research is suggested to further refine the understanding of the normal temperature range for enclosures.

© 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

2015 CIGRE Canada Conference Paper
Total System Reliability Program for Underground Electrical Distribution Networks
By Wen (Essay) Shu & Jim Guo
September, 2015

  • A holistic approach to feeder rehabilitation
  • Physical, electrical, and economic differences between feeder and large URD cables
  • Cable insulation enhancement by chemical rejuvenation
  • Role of diagnostic testing
  • Function of lightning surge arresters in ensuring distribution system reliability

Cable Technology Laboratories (CTL) Test Report 09-143
Electrical Tests on Novinium 200 A Load Break Injection Elbows
August 26, 2009

  • IEEE 386™ compliance
  • Open port flashover performance
  • Reticular Flash Preventer (RFP)

NEETRAC Thermal Testing of Novinium Feeder Cable Splices on Service Aged 750kcmil XLPE Cable Extracted from the Georgia Power System
Project Number: 09-019
April, 2009

  • High temperature performance
  • Cablecure® 733 fluid
  • Advanced injection adapters

NEETRAC ANSI C119.4 Tests of Novinium Injection Adapter
Final Report
NEETRAC Project Number: 06-009
August 15, 2006

  • Improved connector performance
  • Advanced injection adapters

RUS Letter Order Approving Capitalization of Novinium Brand Product
April 3, 2009

  • Can Novinium brand injection be capitalized by RUS borrowers?

FERC Letter Order Approving Capitalization of Novinium Brand Product
September 4, 2008

  • Can Novinium brand injection be capitalized?

Novinium Engineering
A Comparison of Rejuvenation Hazards
by Glen J. Bertini & Richard K. Brinton
January 19, 2011

  • Hazard-by-hazard analysis of commercially significant rejuvenation technologies used for URD cables
  • Differences between sustained pressure rejuvenation (SRP) and unsustained pressure rejuvenation (UPR)
  • Differences between legacy Cablecure fluids, Cablecure iXL fluid, and Cablecure 732/733 fluids.
  • Rejuvenation risk mitigation strategies

Novinium Engineering
High-Voltage Fluidic-Interface Test Report
by Glen Bertini
December 10, 2013

  • What is a High-Voltage Fluidic Interface or HVFI?
  • What are the applicable standards?
  • What has been the actual field performance?
  • What do independent experts say?

What the Heck is Cable Rejuvenation?

  • What causes underground cables to fail?
  • What are water trees and why do they cause underground cables to become unreliable?
  • How does rejuvenation recycle scarce world resources?
  • For how long does rejuvenation work?

Improving Post-treatment Reliability: Eliminating Fluid-Component Compatibility issues
by Glen J. Bertini

  • Fluid incompatibility with rubber components
  • Fluid loss when injecting through rubber components
  • An improved injection paradigm eliminates the issue

Accelerated Aging of Rejuvenated Cables- Part I

Accelerated Aging of Rejuvenated Cables- Part II

  • Proper method to estimate post-injection performance
  • Extensive data which validates life-expectancy
  • Life extension comparison : 732 & older technology

Further Improvements in Rejuvenation Technology

  • Post-injection reliable life comparison of chemical rejuvenation options
  • Improved flammability
  • Reduced electric exposure

New Developments in Solid Dielectric Life Extension Technology

  • 87-fold improvement in short-term performance
  • Much longer reliable cable life
  • Greatly reduced exposure to fire and explosion hazards plaguing older technology
  • Improved injection paradigm yields 3X less exposure to energized equipment
  • Improved compatibility with aluminum conductors

Cable Rejuvenation Mechanisms: An Update

  • Why solid dielectric cables fail
  • How silicone injection stops future failures
  • Advances in catalyst that reduce exudation inefficiency

Cable Rejuvenation Mechanisms
by Glen J. Bertini and Gary A. Vincent

  • Why solid dielectric cables fail
  • How silicone injection stops future failures

Choosing the Best Underground Cable Rehabilitation Option
by Glen J. Bertini and Gary A. Vincent

  • Side-by-side feature and benefits comparison of all commercial rehabilitation technologies
  • How silicone injection stops future failures

Diagnostic Testing of Stochastic Circuits

  • Economic considerations before applying diagnostic testing
  • Thermodynamic considerations before applying diagnostic testing
  • Crow-AMSAA statistics provide inexpensive way to make informed strategic funding decisions for aging underground infrastructure
  • Predict future underground cable failures to target the least reliable cables for rehabilitation
  • Compare diagnostic testing economics against rejuvenation, replacement, or repair

History & Status of Silicone Injection Technology

For available rejuvenation technologies…

  • Compare safety aspects
  • Compare short-term reliability
  • Compare long-term reliability
  • Value including warranty provisions

History & Status of Silicone Injection Technology with Bibliography

  • Historical progress of cable rejuvenation technology
  • Comprehensive bibliography of rejuvenation technology
  • Comparison of the merits of 3 commercially available technologies in the categories of safety, short-term and long-term post-injection reliability, and end-user value

Rehabilitation: The 3R’s
by Glen J. Bertini and Richard K. Brinton

  • Integrated methods to provide greatest reliability with greatest capital efficiency
  • Flow through splices without safety compromises
  • Reticular flash preventer (RFP) eliminates flash-over risk
  • Elimination of soak period yields significant safety advantages

Underground Distribution Reliability: The 5•Ps
by Glen J. Bertini

  • Strategic framework for rehabilitation planning
  • Comparison of rehabilitation options including replacement and chemical rejuvenation

Considerations for Injecting Cables with High Conductor Temperature
by Glen J. Bertini, Norman E. Keitges, and Gary A. Vincent

  • Supersaturation, over saturation, asymmetrical penetration profiles, and aluminum corrosion contributions to feeder failures of first generation rejuvenation
  • Perfect storm of vapor pressure and loss of physical strength at high temperature is a newly identified culprit
  • New generations of fluid solve all problems
  • Co-product fatty-alcohol of 733 fluid changes injection paradigm

Extending Power Cable Life an Additional 40 Years
by Richard K. Brinton & Glen J. Bertini

  • Cable life extension mechanisms
  • What is cable rejuvenation?
  • What problems does cable rejuvenation solve?
  • How are cable injected?
  • Case studies in industrial settings
  • Reducing your carbon footprint

Advancements in 200-amp Injection Elbows

  • Evolution of low pressure injection elbows over two decades
  • Recent improvements which make injection elbows safer to use and IEEE 386 compliant
  • Mythology of injection and direct test elbows

Silicone Injection: Better with Pressure

  • Evolution of pressure in cable rejuvenation – moderate pressures have been in use for over two decades by several suppliers
  • Advanced formulations made possible with sustained pressure
  • Pressurized injection always outperforms low pressure injection
  • What pressure is too high?

A Comparison of Rejuvenation Hazards

  • Hazard-by-hazard analysis of commercially significant rejuvenation technologies used for URD cables
  • Differences between sustained pressure rejuvenation (SRP) and unsustained pressure rejuvenation (UPR)
  • Differences between legacy Cablecure fluids, Cablecure iXL fluid, and Cablecure 732/733 fluids
  • Rejuvenation risk mitigation strategies Advanced formulations made possible with sustained pressure

Considerations for Injecting Cables with High Conductor Temperature: Choices

  • Choices for rejuvenation fluids
  • Choices for rejuvenation processes
  • Choices for rejuvenation strategies

Neutral Corrosion – Significance, Causes & Mitigation

  • IEEE 1617™ IEEE Guide for the Detection, Mitigation, and Control of Concentric Neutral Corrosion in Medium Voltage Underground Cables
  • Define purposes of neutral
  • Consequences of neutral issues
  • Causes and mechanism of neutral corrosion
  • Significance of neutral corrosion in North America
  • Detection and mitigation technology
  • Cost-effective, reliable alternative to replacement

Advances in Chemical Rejuvenation of Submarine Cables
by Glen Bertini

  • N-Rex™ submarine injection
  • Radial exclusion of water
  • Poiseuille’s Law application

Advances in Chemical Rejuvenation: Extending Medium Voltage Cable Life 40 Years
by Glen Bertini and Gary Vincent

  • Side-by-side comparison of all commercially available injection technologies
  • Advances in condensation catalysts

Rejuvenation Reformulated
by Glen J. Bertini and Gary A. Vincent
May 8, 2007

  • Formulation history of chemical rejuvenation – side-by-side comparison of all commercially available technologies
  • Advances in condensation catalysts

Environmental & Safety
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • Recycling cable in situ provides a net benefit to the environment
  • Fate of waste materials – proper disposal
  • Fate of the fluids in the environment – environmentally benign
  • No known carcinogens, developmental toxins, reproductive toxins, mutagens, tetragens

Novinium Safety and Health Policy

  • Novinium’s “below zero” safety policy

Novinium Quality Statement

  • Novinium’s commitment to quality
  • Consequences for failure to follow instructions